Corrugated Horn in WIPL-D Pro Software

In this application note we compared simulated radiation pattern results for circular horn antenna and corresponding corrugated horn antenna. Also, we shortly outlined basic modelling of corrugated horn antenna with radial corrugations using WIPL-D Pro built-in object Body of Connected Generatrices.

All the simulations with the modelling were carried out using WIPL-D Software, a full wave 3D electromagnetic Method-of-Moments based software which applies Surface Integral Equations.

It was highlighted that corrugated horn antenna can be created efficiently combining WIPL-D Pro built-in object Body of Connected Generatrices and WIPL-D symbolic mechanism. The results clearly show that with corrugated horn antenna the level of back lobes is significantly lower. All of the simulations were carried out with high numerical efficiency resulting in short simulation times even when a standard workstation is used for simulation.

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Frequency Dependent Parameters in EM Simulation – Changing Dielectric Constant and Loss Tangent with Operating Frequency

The document demonstrates how to introduce frequency dependent dielectric parameters in WIPL-D Pro, a full-wave 3D EM simulator. Most materials used in fabrication of microwave circuits and antennas have frequency dependent properties which should be taken into account in EM simulations if accurate prediction of the device performance is important. This becomes extremely important when simulations are expected to produce high fidelity results which should serve as a benchmark in validating simulations against the measurements.

Modelling and simulation of a simple patch antenna from 1 GHz to 7 GHz is described. Simulation in such a wide frequency band are completed in around one minute even when using a standard, ‘everyday’ workstation, confirming once again high efficiency of WIPL D software.

In this particular case relative dielectric constant and loss tangent change with frequency, but in principle frequency dependency can be attributed to any symbolically defined parameter such as length, radius, etc. Dependency on frequency for several parameters can be handled using tabulated data stored in a project file.

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Compact Dual-Band Fork Monopole

We illustrate the advantages of WIPL‑D Pro by using simulation of a simple printed fork-shaped dual-band antenna for Bluetooth and general UWB applications.

For the simulation of printed patch antennas and circuits, a simple usage of WIPL-D features, such as Symmetry planes and Manipulation Edging, yields very fast and accurate solution. WIPL-D efficient simulation on multicore CPUs allows simulation in seconds at inexpensive desktop and laptop PCs. This eliminates the need for the high-end hardware platforms in order to simulate electrically small and moderate structures, even in wide frequency band.

The application note also shows the importance of the feeding are in simulation of the printed models, where most often we have transition between several guide wave technologies (in this case, the transition from coaxial to microstrip).

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Vivaldi Antenna

Vivaldi antenna is a commonly used antenna in broadband applications. As in this case, it is usually printed at the dielectric substrate. The simulation results show extremely wide band (return loss under -10 dB).

The simulation is performed in low number of frequency points due to the powerful built-in interpolation method (typically drawback of using MoM in simulation of UWB antennas since each frequency point is simulated separately).

In MoM, the simulation is quite fast at the lowest operating frequency, but more demanding at the end of the frequency band. WIPL-D offers built-in features where each frequency point is simulated according to the current simulation frequency. In that sense, the overall simulation time in a wide frequency band is decreased several times. Here, the simulation is performed by using a regular desktop quad core CPU and lasts couple of seconds per frequency point.

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Hyperboloid Lens Antenna Design Guide

This paper presents the procedure for the design of hyperboloid lens antenna. It contains theoretical consideration and foundation, as well as procedure for design in the WIPL-D software suite.

Hyperboloid Lens antenna consists of two parts: feeding cylindrical waveguide and the dielectric lens. Thus, the design procedure is approximately divided into two steps corresponding to the design of single part.

Finally, the app note shows WIPL-D Pro model at 25.5 GHz, its radiation pattern and the simulation details. Simulation is carried out in seconds at inexpensive every day PC.

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Microstrip Patch Antenna [Verification by Measurement]

Microstrip patch antennas are among the most popular antennas, used in various application areas. Modelling of such antennas is typically straight forward and can be done in WIPL-D general-purpose 3D modeler WIPL-D Pro. More advanced geometries or geometries provided by CAD file can be made simulation ready in AW Modeler or WIPL-D Pro CAD. A simple microstrip patch antenna is simulated.

The simulation itself is not of much relevance here. Simple printed antennas are simulated in WIPL-D at regular desktop or laptop PC in seconds. The application note was focused to verify the simulated results by using measurements performed by WIPL-D team

The software predicted the resonance at 1.905 GHz, while measurements pointed to 1.906 GHz. The simulated bandwidth is 19.35 MHz while the measured one is 19.3 MHz. The relative discrepancy is 0.05 % for resonant frequency and 0.25 % for bandwidth.

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Printed Monopole Antenna for 5G Network Frequency Bands

The analysis of an antenna which can operate in 5G network frequency bands using WIPL-D Software has presented in this application note. In particular, S-parameters and radiation pattern of a printed monopole antenna fed with coplanar waveguide have been calculated are compared.

All the simulations and the modelling were carried out using WIPL-D full wave 3D electromagnetic Method-of-Moments based software which applies Surface Integral Equations. The simulations are very fast and accurate and in a good agreement with the results presented in referenced paper.

The application note represents a good demonstration how a planar structure can be built with minimum effort in WIPL-D Pro CAD environment. In addition, the realistic antenna connection has been modeled using three different feeders.

All of the simulations were carried out with high numerical efficiency resulting in short simulation times even when a laptop is used for the simulations.

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Helix Antennas

Discovered by scientist Krauss in 1946, helix antenna is used in space applications, radar systems… Usually, it is manufactured as a wire, coiled around dielectric cylinder. It produces circular polarization of emitted EM wave.

This application note encompasses comparing simulation times, number of unknowns and radiation patterns for three simulated helix antennas: wire helix, thin strip helix and thin strip with the dielectric mast. In WIPL-D software, various helix antennas can be successfully designed using powerful built-in object named Helix.

The simulations were carried on regular desktop PC, with extremely low number of unknowns and simulation times measured in seconds. This allows fast tuning, sweep or optimization of the antenna otherwise known for the demanding synthesis process.

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Spiral Antennas

In this application note, we analyze two spiral antennas. The first one is with the air substrate, while the other one has the dielectric substrate between spiral arms and metallic reflector.

In WIPL-D Pro, a spiral can be easily created and modified using built in Helix object. Especially if the same mesh over the close surfaces is required (here, antenna reflector and surface where spiral arms are located), built in manipulation named Copy\Layer can be very useful.

The antennas are simulated from 0.3 GHz to 6 GHz in wide frequency band. For this type of simulation, number of frequencies can reduced by using the logarithmic scale and built-in interpolation. The simulation was carried out at regular desktop PC, requiring extremely low number of unknowns, with simulation time measured in seconds.

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Rectangular Horn Antenna

The application note presents WIPL‑D Pro models and simulation results of one of the simplest and widely used antennas – rectangular horn antenna at 10 GHz.

Half and quarter of the model were simulated in order to demonstrate the capabilities of symmetry feature in WIPL-D suite. Usage of the Symmetry plane has decreased already low simulation time and the required number of unknowns, while the desired output results differ negligibly (proving the solution accuracy).

Electrically large antennas (such as long horns) are simulated in the WIPL-D in seconds owing to the efficient implementation of MoM with HoBF.

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Dielectrically Loaded Circular Horn Antenna

Two models of circular horn antenna were simulated using the WIPL-D software. Special attention is devoted to the dielectrically loaded horn antenna. The influence of the dielectric loading is highlighted and it is the most noticeable in radiation back lobe (significantly suppressed if dielectric load is used).

In order to reduce number of unknowns and simulation time, two symmetry planes were successfully used in each model. Both models were simulated very fast with minimum computational requirements, while simulation time is couple of seconds.

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Ultra-Wide Band Elliptical Antenna

WIPL-D is a frequency-domain software while the simulated antenna is broad-band (the operating band is from 5 GHz up to 14 GHz). In general, simulation of UWB devices is more demanding in the frequency-domain simulation software, owing to the fact that larger number of frequency points should be simulated.

Several features are used to improve simulation time and requirements: usage the Method of Moments with unique application of higher order basis functions, symmetry which halves number of unknowns, and decreased number of frequency points due to built-in interpolation of results.

The UWP elliptical antenna is electrically small structure and requires very low number of unknowns. With the code efficient execution on multicore CPUs, the simulation is performed on inexpensive desktop quad core CPU. It laste couple of seconds per frequency point.

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